Picasso : die Arbeit mit den Anderen

  • Picasso : working with others

Gülpers, Josef; Schneider, Ulrich (Thesis advisor); Markschies, Alexander (Thesis advisor); Spijkers, Wilhelmus (Thesis advisor)

Aachen : Publikationsserver der RWTH Aachen University (2015)
Dissertation / PhD Thesis

Aachen, Techn. Hochsch., Diss., 2015


From what sources drew Picasso his immeasurably rich and multifaceted work, which works by other artists he saw and how and why came these works in his own images in appearance? He quoted famous artworks, but often not all the paintings, prints, drawings and sculptures, but he only took individual fragments or ideas, for example, the chair Van Gogh's Bedroom at Arles emerged in his pictures of the Blue Period. So come to the paraphrased paintings individual quotes. This may be an object such as Van Gogh's chair, these may be compositional elements or ideas for a picture theme, color aspects, inking, etc.A look at Picassos themes and subjects shows that his work is almost exclusively based on existing, traditional iconography. While Picasso's youth it is the influence of contemporary literature and the artistic avantgarde in Europe. Only later he began to select. In his paraphrases to Courbet, Manet, Delacroix, Velázquez, Cranach, Poussin and others, he starts from the substantive schemes. He draws on known and recognized issues and plays with them by varying the Undifference between a model and paraphrase. He discusses in his pictures on the knowledge of the "Old Masters" and their changes in his work.In his whole life Picasso is closely linked with his Spanish birthplace and both in the artistic as well as in the cultural tradition. He sees the first masterworks of the old Spanish master Velázquez, Goya and El Greco in the Prado, he learns to and with them, he is firmly rooted in Spanish Modernism, he gets to know the archaic and medieval characters of his native country, he takes a stand against Franco and his fascist worldview, he paints the startling picture Guernica, he has been involved since Second World War for his country and eventually attracts the Mediterranean coast, where he is closer to its Mediterranean roots and its artistic traditions. By the end of the nineteenth century and thus to the youth of Picasso artistic creativity and originality belongs to the ideal image of an Artist. The training was based on existing historic monuments. The arts are theorized and learning and teachable, the imitation plays an extremely important role by a fixed set of rules. Giorgio Vasari describes his contemporary art history as the progress of Giotto up to his presence. The quality of a work is not addressed by their originality and independence of other works of art and artists, as is the case today, but on the ability of the artist to refer to the appropriate for its purpose models and reshape by varying for illustration purposes. It is not therefore asked the pure copying but a creative use of models. In addition to the imitation of nature and antiquity, also works of art of recent times can establish themselves as role models. Despite some innovations are retained basic principles in the art academies until the early twentieth century, for example, the requirement for unity of form and content and the evaluation of individual genres, the history painting is at the top, while representations of the simple life on the lower body rank. Picasso is not the first artist who negates this system. Manet's painting Frühstück im Grünen of 1863, which Picasso paraphrased hundred years later in several works, aroused at his exhibition violent stir because Manet offends deliberately against these standards. Manet will redefine the art. He does not negate the art historical tradition, but he goes freely to her. His alienation seems shocking to his contemporaries, as something completely new. Manet takes over the exact composition of a famous work and follows in the demand of the Academy. This is precisely for Picasso of importance and therefore he will have selected the picture of Manet for a paraphrase; Picasso does not negate the art historical tradition, but goes entirely free to with traditional forms and motifs. With Picasso imitating famous works of art enters into a new stage: the motifs and forms are now a fundus any availability. Especially in these paraphrases Picasso presents himself as an artist, all kinds of expression are available and he understands to express masterfully in all style areas, and then Picasso adds of his own accord an artistic order, which he has not been set. Therefor his works signify a degree of renunciation of freedom. Thus, the paraphrases are a very complex work, which involves artistic interest and discussion, appropriation, respect and finally to overcome the tradition. In his youth, Picasso learns primarily by his father, lasting impressions from art history, which he extended in the Prado. In Paris the young Picasso are not only the major museums with their outstanding collections available, but he closely watched the work of his contemporaries. In addition, Picasso captures the pulsating life of the big city. In addition to frequent visits to the Louvre, Picasso increases his knowledge of the world of art books and catalogs, and creates an imaginary pictures stock from which he can draw throughout his life. In a number of his statements to art it is seen what immense knowledge about art history he has, but also what artist and why he prefers or rejects. Picasso is absolutely familiar with the developments and trends of European art history. This knowledge can be acquired only by intensive study and through their own intuition. In creative attitude towards the traditional heritage Picasso manages to create something completely new.


  • Chair and Institute of Art History [218010]